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Titel
International migration intentions and illegal costs: evidence from Africa-to-Europe smuggling routes / Guido Friebel (Goethe University Frankfurt, CEPR and IZA), Miriam Manchin (University College London), Mariapia Mendola (Università di Milano-Bicocca and IZA), Giovanni Prarolo (Università di Bologna) ; IZA Institute of Labor Economics
VerfasserFriebel, Guido ; Manchin, Miriam ; Mendola, Mariapia ; Prarolo, Giovanni
KörperschaftForschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit
ErschienenBonn, Germany : IZA Institute of Labor Economics, November 2018
Ausgabe
Elektronische Ressource
Umfang1 Online-Ressource (33 Seiten) : Diagramme, Karten
SerieDiscussion paper ; no. 11978
URNurn:nbn:de:hbz:5:2-174306 
Zugriffsbeschränkung
 Das Dokument ist öffentlich zugänglich im Rahmen des deutschen Urheberrechts.
Volltexte
International migration intentions and illegal costs: evidence from Africa-to-Europe smuggling routes [2.26 mb]
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Zusammenfassung (Englisch)

Irregular migrants from Africa and the Middle East flow into Europe along land and sea routes under the control of human smugglers. The demise of the Gaddafi regime in 2011 marked the opening of the Central Mediterranean Route for irregular border - crossing between Libya and Italy. This resulted in the immediate expansion of the global smuggling network, which produced an asymmetric reduction in bilateral distance between country pairs across the Mediterranean sea. We exploit this source of spatial and time variation in irregular migration routes to estimate the elasticity of migration intentions to illegal moving costs proxied by distance. We build a novel dataset of geolocalized time-varying migration routes, combined with cross-country survey data on individual intentions to move from Africa (and the Middle East) into Europe. Netting out any country-by-time and pair-level confounders we find a large negative effect of distance along smuggling routes on individual migration intentions. Shorter distances increase the willingness to migrate especially for youth, (medium) skilled individuals and those with a network abroad. The effect is stronger in countries closer to Libya and with weak rule of law.